Goethes „Faust. Der Tragödie erster Teil“. Eine Analyse aus drei Blickwinkeln (German Edition)

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Dans le sillage by Per Petterson

Thus the history of Hogwarts castle dates back to a remote past and the present is still shaped by the deeds of ancestors in this case, one of the founders of the school that reverberate in the present. Tell me Dobby! After the first attacks, Hogwarts does not only turn into an unpredictable and dangerous place, but also becomes infused with its local history, with which every student seems to be suddenly preoccupied.

Relics of the past are thus very much part of everyday life. His hands trembling slightly, he raised the book to press his eye against the little window, and before he knew what was happening, he was tilting forwards; the window was widening, he felt his body leave his bed and he was pitched headfirst through the opening in the page, into a whirl of colour and shadow ibid. He does not even remotely consider that the memory may have been manipulated or altered.

He is deceived into believing that Hagrid was the one having opened the Chamber and that the spider Aragog is the monster hidden inside it. Thus the past does not only inform and influence the characters in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, but actually consumes them, invading the present and closing the gap between past events and the present moment.

As was indicated above, the probably most Gothic place in the novel is the legendary Chamber of Secrets itself, which displays a range of features typically associated with Gothic literature. The close link between labyrinth and secret is reinforced by the fact that Harry discovers the titular Chamber at the end to save the life of Ginny Weasley as well as to fight the true heir of Salazar Slytherin.

The skulls do not only establish a link with the bones on display at Borgin and Burkes, they also emphasise that the place is associated with death. This association can also be seen in the comparison of the place to a grave, which it eventually will become unless Harry rescues Ginny in time. The colour symbolism is particularly striking since green is the colour associated with Slytherin house — it is hardly surprising then that Harry encounters the Basilisk, a huge snake, in the Chamber.

Both the novel and the adaptation indicate that the Chamber is a Gothic place, which displays the characteristic aura of mystery while simultaneously establishing a sense of persecution and reinforcing the connection with Salazar Slytherin. Apart from being a gloomy place associated with utmost danger, the Chamber, like Hogwarts, also displays a connection between past and present in the form of the seemingly 10 In early Gothic novels, the typical character constellation consists of the hero, the damsel in distress or victim and the villain — a triad which can also be found in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.

Despite the fact that the villain is embodied by Voldemort throughout all seven novels, the hero and the damsel in distress cannot be assigned as easily to specific characters. Thus Tom, as a relic from the time fifty years ago, constructs himself a legacy and appears as a corporeal manifestation to Harry, defying temporality through the magical means of the diary.

Conclusion Exploring several places in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets has shown that they can be read in the context of traditional Gothic places, which creates the distinctive atmosphere that contributes to the overall darker theme of the novel.

These places are linked especially by the atmosphere and feelings they create; for instance, gloom and the feeling of claustrophobia characterise all places. Rowling uses Gothic places to reinforce the dangers and threat lurking at Hogwarts and spreading over the school. In particular the places in and around Hogwarts display a strong connection with the past, as can be seen in the conversation between Harry, Ron and Aragog in the Forbidden Forest, as well as in the local history of Hogwarts more generally.

With the opening of the Chamber of Secrets fear spreads in the school, further safety measures are taken and the school becomes an utterly dangerous place. Works Cited Bayne, Karen M. Botting, Fred. Routledge, []. Burnett, Frances Hodgson. Columbus, Chris dir. Warner Bros. Flotmann, Christina. Hiebert Alton, Anne. Jacobs, Tilia Klebenov. Pheasant-Kelly, Fran. Rowling — Harry Potter, edited by Cynthia J.

Punter, David, and Byron, Glennis. The Gothic. Schanoes, Veronica L. Stevens, David. The Gothic Tradition. Cambridge University Press, []. Penguin, []. TIME Staff. Last access: 23 August Walpole, Horace. The Castle of Otranto. Various articles on Pottermore indicate that J.

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Rowling was aware of Celtic myths and legends when writing the Harry Potter series. Similarly, in her comment on the Sword of Gryffindor she refers to the legend of King Arthur cf. In addition, the Druidess Cliodna, featured on one of the Chocolate Frog cards Harry gets on his first journey to Hogwarts cf. Stone 78 , is based on an actual Druidess in Irish mythology, as Colbert points out cf.

Colbert Rather than focusing on the quite esoteric modern Druids, who can be seen at Stonehenge every year, this paper will draw upon the image of the Druids as represented in ancient Celtic literature in order to identify possible similarities with the representation of wizards and witches and specifically their ways of practising magic in the Harry Potter series.

Similarities to cauldrons in Celtic mythology have been analysed as well cf. But there is next to no research on the comparison between Celtic Druidism1 and Harry Potter so far. Still, a certain Celtic influence seems entirely possible, especially since she is known for her intertextual references and her knowledge of many different ancient cultures and cultural customs,3 and some of the parallels to Celtic Druidism are striking. Instead, the term was imposed upon them by others, primarily the Romans.

Most references to Druidism can be found in Irish literature, which is why this paper primarily uses these accounts. For some of the features that will be mentioned in the following evidence from other Celtic areas, for example information on the Gaulish Druids, will also be drawn upon.

A major problem when studying the Druids is the overall lack of historical sources. The dearth of historical evidence has given rise to a considerable amount of myth-making, as Piggott stresses: What, however, can also be constructed is that very dangerous thing, a past-wished-for, in which a convenient selection of the evidence is fitted into a predetermined intellectual or emotional pattern. This also means that all sources associated with the Druids available today have to be regarded with extreme caution, as not all of them are based on scientific facts.

Many of the original sources written by the Druids or their people were destroyed in the course of Christianisation, leaving scholars mostly with external accounts. Nevertheless, there is a high number of literary sources that were transmitted orally for some time before Christian scribes wrote them down cf.

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Birkhan , which did not happen before the 6th-8th century cf. These texts are where most accounts of Druidism can be found. More precisely, these are ancient Irish or Welsh myths and legends, though the majority of accounts is situated within the Irish context. It seems very unlikely that Rowling was inspired by the historical sources depicting the original Druids due to the scarcity of source material ; moreover, it proves to be extremely 3 Cf. The first two types of sources deal mainly with Druidism in Gaul.

In the following, I will, due to a lack of historic sources on Druidism in Celtic Britain and Ireland, also use these references to provide a more complete picture of the Druids. The historic Druids held many different functions in ancient Celtic society and had a high standing; they even ranked above the kings. They had religious functions in the community, and they were judges cf.

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Meid He identifies three different types of Druids, i. In the classical sources they were also associated with divination and star-study.

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As mentioned before, most accounts on Druidism can be found in literary texts, and it is certainly possible that Rowling has drawn inspiration from some of these sources, as was pointed out in the introduction. However, since these works were originally published in the late 19th century Bonwick and in the s Spence and given the fact that both Spence and Bonwick drew upon even older sources from the 17th and 18th centuries , their works may be tainted by the practice of creating their own folklore around Druidism and not checking their sources cf.

This should be kept in mind when reading the following hypotheses. As will become apparent, the picture they draw of Druidism is one that bears remarkable similarities to the magical world in the Harry Potter series. Wands and spells In the Harry Potter novels, wands and spells are the basic tools of the true wizard. The casting of spells typically requires a wand in Harry Potter, as long as one is a wizard or witch.

Stone 47 , show that magic is possible without a wand, the wizards in the Harry Potter novels are not able to channel their magic and perform certain spells without their wands. JULE LENZEN 74 forehead, but never, until this moment, had he felt himself to be fatally weakened, vulnerable and naked, as though the best part of his magical power had been torn from him Hallows According to the available accounts, Druids also make use of wands, even if these are not mentioned every single time Druids are referred to as casting a spell.

This observation also alludes to another significant parallel to Harry Potter, as the wands in the Potterverse are also made of different types of wood. Here, the list of wand woods is quite long, however, and is not limited to yew, hawthorn and rowan, although it includes those three cf. He characterises this particular type of wand as a peace-bringing wand. Although wands in Harry Potter do not vary that much in terms of their shape, the idea of a wand with special powers is picked up quite prominently in the Elder Wand.

With regard to the powers of wands, there seems to be a strong connection with water in the case of Druids in Irish literature cf. Bonwick Although there seems to be no special connection between water and the wizard or witch in Harry Potter, there is at least a spell that provides water: the Aguamenti Charm cf. Spence, Magic Arts Spence, History ; although fithfath in its different forms is attested in many Celtic literary accounts cf.

Additionally, Spence also mentions the transformation processes connected with fith-fath and the Druidic processes of transformation or shape-shifting, which will be discussed at a later point in this paper. The Druidic Magical Fires cf. Spence, History , for instance, have counterparts in the Potterverse.

So magical fires are a recurring feature in the Harry Potter series. This, strictly speaking, already concerns the next section, where more spells will be discussed in connection with Magical Battles. Spence, History The examples addressed so far show that spells and the use of wands were closely linked in Celtic Druidism, which suggests an obvious parallel to the Potterverse. Beyond that, the notion that the wands were made of specific woods and that there were wands with a special reputation can also be found in the Harry Potter series, especially with respect to the Elder Wand.

Moreover, when regarding a selection of spells in Druidic lore, there are also striking similarities, although they cannot always be translated into a spell in Harry Potter. Magical battles Spells, curses and hexes are regularly employed in battles and duels in Harry Potter, ranging from duelling practice to the Battle of Hogwarts. The Druids are said to have often been involved in battles as well, and Diodorus Siculus, the Greek historian 1st century BCE , even refers to their involvement in historic battles in Gaul cf.

One specific spell attributed to Druids in various texts in connection with battles results in casting a dense fog for the purpose of concealment cf. Columba from travelling cf. This may remind readers of Harry Potter of Voldemort, who is able to fly without the help of a broom cf.