The Neurophysiological Bases of Auditory Perception
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The Harmonic Organization of Auditory Cortex. Reviewing the definition of timbre as it pertains to the perception of speech and musical sounds. ROY D. Size Perception for acoustically scaled sounds of naturally pronounced and whispered words. Subcomponent cues in binaural unmasking. JORIS Effect of reverberation on directional sensitivity of auditory neurons: Central and peripheral factors. New experiments employing raised-sine stimuli suggest an unknown factor affects sensitivity to envelope-based ITDs for stimuli having low depths of modulation.
Binaurally-coherent jitter improves neural and perceptual ITD sensitivity in normal and electric hearing. Lateralization of tone complexes in noise: the role of monaural envelope processing in binaural hearing. Adjustment of interaural-time-difference analysis to sound level. The role of envelope wave form, adaptation, and attacks in binaural perception.
Short-term synaptic plasticity and adaptation contribute to the coding of timing and intensity information. Adaptive coding for auditory spatial cues. Phase shifts in monaural field potentials of the medial superior olive. Representation of intelligible and distorted speech in human auditory cortex. Intelligibility of time-compressed speech with periodic and aperiodic insertions of silence: Evidence for endogenous brain rhythms in speech perception? The representation of the pitch of vowel sounds in ferret auditory cortex.
Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of speech recognition in noise: What can be understood at which level? Effects of peripheral tuning on the auditory nerve's representation of speech envelope and temporal fine structure cues. BRUCE Room reflections and constancy in speech-like sounds: Within-band effects. MAKIN Identification of perceptual cues for consonant sounds and the influence of sensorineural hearing loss on speech perception. A comparative view on the perception of mistuning: constraints of the auditory periphery. KLUMP Stability of perceptual organisation in auditory streaming.
Sequential and simultaneous auditory grouping measured with synchrony detection.
The neurophysiological bases of auditory perception - کتابخانه الکترونیک و دیجیتال - آذرسا
Rate vs. A spatio-temporal coherence model of the cortical basis of streaming. Objective measures of Auditory Scene Analysis. Perception of concurrent sentences with harmonic or frequency-shifted voiced excitation: Performance of human listeners and of computational models based on autocorrelation. Is there stimulus-specific adaptation in the medial geniculate body of the rat? Auditory streaming at the cocktail party: Simultaneous neural and behavioral studies of auditory attention.
SIMON Correlates of auditory attention and task performance in primary auditory and prefrontal cortex. The implicit learning of noise: Behavioural data and computational models. Role of primary auditory cortex in acoustic orientation and approach-to-target responses. Objective and behavioral estimates of cochlear response times in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired human listeners. Why do hearing-impaired listeners fail to benefit from masker fluctuations? Across-fiber coding of temporal fine-structure: Effects of noise-induced hearing loss on auditory-nerve responses.
Beyond the audiogram: identifying and modelling patterns of hearing deficits. More Books in Neurosciences See All. In Stock. In Praise of Walking The new science of how we walk and why it's goo The Undoing Project. The estimation of the stimulus-response correlation constitutes a validated measure of similarity between signals 2. Likewise, the time shift between both signals resulting in maximum correlation is used as an objective estimation of the response onset 2 , 7 , Stimulus and response were maximally positively correlated at time lags of 7.
Stimulus-response correlation. Stimulus onset is shifted in time arrow to account for the time lag resulting in maximal correlation between signals with the aim of maximizing the visual coherence between stimulus and response waveforms.
The evoked responses of monkeys also reflected the spectral features of speech sound by showing phase-locking properties to the F0 as observed in humans. Notably, the response amplitude Fig. The mean amplitude of the grand-added average at the F0 frequency range for human subjects 1. The average amplitude across epochs of humans was of For the monkey group, the F0 and HH average amplitude was of Spectral amplitude of the FFR.
The gray line shows the coherency average of the two macaque values. In both species, a robust neural representation of sound periodicities over time was captured by the FFR. The magnitude of neural activation was estimated by the signal-to-noise ratio SNR , and neural consistency was calculated by the correlation between odd and even subaverages as previously described 44 , The amplitude of monkey monkey Y: 2. The average SNR across epochs indicated a slightly larger neural activation in monkey response 1.
Intrinsic measures of the FFR. Data is shown as a box plot for the human data and as discrete values for monkeys blue: monkey Y; purple, monkey A. The red line within each box represents the median values, the edges of the box delimit the 25 th and 75 th percentiles and the whiskers indicate the 10 th and 90 th percentiles. We found that rhesus monkeys exhibit a homologous human FFR, revealing a shared neural sensitivity to acoustic periodicities. The periodic activity of the monkey FFR reproduces the F0 of the stimulus as observed in human responses, indicating comparable phase-locking abilities to fast temporal information such as subsyllabic cues in both species.
Furthermore, it has been shown that the lemniscal auditory pathway comprising the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, ventral division of the medial geniculate body together with the core region of the auditory cortex has a strong contribution to the FFR Lemniscal auditory neurons are highly sensitive to the physical features of the sound exhibiting fast and high-fidelity responses which contrast with the habituating responses to unvarying stimuli of the non-lemniscal neurons 51 , 52 , Whether analogous auditory neural structures encode temporal periodicities in the order of milliseconds in both species remains to be addressed.
Regardless, the principles of organization of auditory ascending pathway in which specialized neurons encoding the acoustical properties are tightly interconnected seems to be a general feature across mammals 51 , 52 , Although there are no studies on the response of brainstem and midbrain neurons to periodic sounds in monkey, it has been shown that neurons of the cochlear nucleus 58 and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus 59 of guinea pigs exhibit a similar pattern of periodic activity as synthetic speech sounds.
Overall, animal studies indicate that neurons along the mammalian auditory ascending pathway exhibit a phase-locked patterning of activity that follows the acoustic periodicities in the order of milliseconds. Further intracerebral recordings are needed to determine the contribution of each of the auditory structures on the scalp-recorded monkey FFR, as well as its differences with the human FFR. Monkey FFR exhibits larger peak amplitude and latency Fig. Early 64 and middle latency evoked responses 65 in monkeys also have a larger amplitude than human responses, which could be partially explained by the smaller thickness of the monkey skull and larger ratio between sizes of electrode and neural generators.
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The longest latencies of monkey FFR Fig. Although, a second possibility is that longer latencies resulted from larger and more frequent movement artifacts occurring in monkey recordings, since animals were not head-restrained and could move spontaneously. While peak 2 in human average response was small Fig. Thus, it is possible that humans have a larger sensitivity to burst-voice transition or that the analogous neural structures in monkeys elicit a weak response not captured by the scalp recording.
Human and monkey FFR potential. Note the absence of peak 2 and larger amplitude and latencies in monkey FFR. Importantly, a shared capacity to track isochronous regularities in the two primates is indicated by the interpeak intervals and spectra analysis of the sustained features of human and monkey FFR.
Nevertheless, recent studies have shown a gradient in the sensitivity to represent the metrical structure of complex sounds across the primate order 35 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , Accordingly, the gradual audiomotor evolution hypothesis proposes that the meter hierarchy at which primate species can perceive and entrain movements may have developed as a consequence of a gradient of anatomofunctional changes in the auditory and motor systems Further comparative studies are needed to determine the stage at which the structure and function of circuits diverges to account for different meter hierarchy sensitivity.
Similarly, it is of timely interest to study how early encoding of acoustic regularities is exploited and modulated by downstream sensory and motor neural circuits to support perception and production of more complex temporal patterns 69 , 70 , Human studies suggest an overlap between auditory circuits underlying the FFR and higher level neural circuits involved in beat entrainment. It has been observed that subjects that can entrain, with high precision, to an external beat have a larger phase locking and inter-trial consistency of the FFR potential 12 , These observations strongly suggest that the precise representation of the temporal structure of sound occurring at low hierarchical levels are used to plan and align motor outputs in phase to the stimulus 17 , 70 , 73 , Furthermore, top-down signals also sharpen the early processing of temporal regularities, as revealed by the finding that FFR strength is modified by short-term training protocols 23 , 75 and on-line cognitive factors 46 , Non-human primates are able to perceive and respond predictively to isochronous auditory sequences 33 , 36 , 37 and notably, the stimulus-response correlation and the neural consistency of monkey FFR was comparable Fig.
Therefore, the neurophysiological basis of audio-motor entrainment 34 , 36 , 37 , 77 and the associated experience-dependent plasticity of the FFR potential can be studied in the behaving monkey to understand the mechanisms behind the correlation between the extraction of periodic auditory features and precision of synchronization performance observed in humans.
In summary, our findings reveal a conserved neural tracking accuracy for stimulus regularities between human and non-human primates. Thus, the rhesus monkey can be a suitable animal model not only to investigate the neurophysiological basis of the FFR, but also to study the neural mechanisms behind the association between beat entrainment abilities and experience-dependent auditory plasticity.
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Subjects had no history of hearing disorders and all gave written informed consent. All the animal care, housing, and experimental procedures were approved by the National University of Mexico Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and strictly conformed to the principles outlined in the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals NIH, publication number 85—23, revised The researchers and animal care staff monitored the two monkeys daily to ensure their health and well-being.
To ameliorate their condition of life, we routinely introduced toys often containing food items that they liked to their home cage 1. Human subjects and monkeys were awake; head unrestrained and comfortably seated inside an electrically isolated and sound-attenuated room without performing any behavioral task.
To prevent drowsiness and minimize motion, human subjects watched a silent subtitled movie from a laptop running on battery power. Blocks of 2, stimuli in alternating positive and negative polarity at a rate of The audio file. The reference and ground electrodes were placed on the inion and forehead, respectively. Waver and Company, USA. The scalp of the macaques was shaved and the scalp of human subjects was cleaned with mild abrasive gel Nuprep, D.
Weaver and Company, USA before each recording session to reduce scalp impedance. Here, the signal recorded at the Cz site was analyzed since it exhibited the largest SNR and it has been reported in previous EEG monkey studies Furthermore, artifacts due to the postauricular muscle reflex are diminished by using the vertex-inon derivation The EEG signal, as well as the sound trigger and waveform, were simultaneously acquired at a sampling rate of The signal timeline was corrected by 1.